Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Maryam Mirzakhani, the first woman to win the Fields Medal

Maryam Mirzakhani, the first woman to win the Fields Medal


The International Congress of Mathematicians is held this year in Seoul, South Korea. As expected, its opening was the occasion to announce the winners of the prestigious Fields Medal. The surprise came with the Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani. This is the first woman to receive the award many consider the Nobel Prize for mathematics.

The history of mathematics has seen some great mathematicians like Emmy Noether but none of them had yet received the Fields Medal.  This is done with the mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani.  © Stanford University

Like every four years since 1950, the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM International Congress of Mathematicians) is the occasion of the award of the Fields Medal mythical that is considered the equivalent of the Nobel Prize. http://enjoycoloring.com/fantasy/ It comes with a price of around 11,000 euros and winners, four mathematicians in addition, must be aged under 40. The first Fields medals were actually awarded in 1936, a fact that may intrigue since then the 52 winners were all men.

This year, the opening of the ICM is associated with a real thunderbolt since it was officially announced that in addition to the Franco-Brazilian Artur Avila, the Austrian Martin Hairer and Canada-United States Manjul Bhargava, there was a woman among the winners. This is the Iranian mathematician Maryam Mirzakhani.

An experimental serum that still need to study

An experimental serum that still need to study


That is why a private laboratory based in San Diego, Mapp Biopharmaceutical, has developed a cocktail of antibodies called ZMapp. This potential treatment has never been tested on a large scale in humans . But recently, two people infected with Ebola were repatriated to the United States to receive that to which they responded well, unlike a Spanish priest who received the same treatment experimental serum.

We know that the treatment ZMapp has three antibodies that prevent infection of cells by the Ebola virus. He had been tested on monkeys in experiments that have been published in 2012 in PNAS .

Although it seems effective, at least when administered shortly after infection, it remains experimental. The use of this treatment has been controversial: is it ethically responsible to administer to sick knowing he is not licensed? http://enjoycoloring.com/disney/ Side effects, especially, are not known. However, given the seriousness of the epidemic, the WHO has therefore decided that it was better to use it.

In parallel, research is still working on this treatment: for example, the laboratories of Scripps Research Institute are studying the antibodies that could fight the Ebola virus, the three antibodies in the serum ZMapp. TSRI laboratories studying the structures of these antibodies by electron microscopy and crystallography to X-rays in these images. Thanks, researchers are trying to better understand how these antibodies bind to Ebola virus and prevent it from operating. Erica Ollmann Saphire According researcher at TSRI, this experimental treatment would be one of the best currently known antibody cocktails, but there may be ways to improve it ...

Ebola: an experimental treatment being tested

Ebola: an experimental treatment being tested

WHO has agreed to the use of experimental serum ZMapp in two Liberian doctors infected with Ebola virus. This experimental treatment, developed by a private laboratory was successfully administered two state-uniens patients. Research in this area is ongoing.

This electron microscopy image shows Ebola virions.  © Public Library of Science, PLoS Biology 2005


With already more than 1,000 people dead, the West Africa is currently experiencing the largest outbreak of virus Ebola in its history. Affected Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. These exceptional circumstances have led the WHO to endorse the use of serums which experimental neither efficiency nor the side effects are not known ... Two Liberian doctors infected with viruses should benefit from this treatment.

The Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever , a particularly virulent disease that leads to death in 25-90% of cases. The virus is spread through contact with blood and body fluids of persons or infected animals. http://enjoycoloring.com/animation/ The first outbreaks were described in 1976 is no treatment or vaccine approved to treat or prevent disease. Ideally, doctors would like to have a treatment relieving symptoms and can be used as prevention for health personnel who work in areas where the virus is prevalent.

In 1976, there were 318 cases of hemorrhagic fever caused by the Ebola virus in Zaire

Folding robots interest to the space sector

The team of researchers from MIT and Harvard University used a technique of laser cutting and inexpensive materials (copper, paper, shape memory polymer) to design this prototype which cost much more $ 100 (about 74 euros). © MIT-Harvard University , YouTube

Folding robots interest to the space sector


The composite is made ​​with five layers of materials. The plant is a copper foil which has been etched to laser to form the network of electrical connectors that connects the motors, resistors, and the microcontroller Batteries. This copper portion is sandwiched between two paper sheets themselves covered by two outer layers of a polymeric shape memory which will bend at predetermined angles, when heated. Currently, the prototype works independently with a timer that handles different sequences. http://enjoycoloring.com/animals/ But the researchers say that it is possible to pair with sensors that could trigger the transformation, for example, at a certain temperature or pressure.

Furthermore, the method of manufacture of the robot based on the laser engraving is inexpensive. The chassis of the prototype has cost, in fact, that 20 dollars (15 euros) and all incorporating motors, electronics and batteries does not exceed 100 dollars (74 euros). This technique opens up very interesting possibilities, especially in space. One of the researchers involved in the project says that we can consider robots or satellites that could be grouped in a flat container and, once it reaches its destination is d├ęplierait to assemble and complete their mission. One can also imagine robots backpack, easy to carry to work on sites inaccessible. And why not, in the more distant future, domestic robots that would fall under furniture or in a closet waiting to be called upon to perform a task? To be continued ...

The first origami robots arrive

The first origami robots arrive


Researchers at Harvard University and MIT have developed a technique inspired by origami folding which is able to move from a platform in an articulated structure and move independently robot. A compound of the copper layers, paper and shape memory polymer, this robot can be manufactured inexpensively with a laser cutter.

Within four minutes, the robot consisting of a composite material sensitive to heat unfolds to take another form and moves independently.  © MIT-Harvard University

Transformers, these robots capable of changing well-known to children and fans of sci-fi form, now have everything there was more real competitor. http://enjoycoloring.com/activity/ A team including researchers at the Wyss Institute at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has unveiled a prototype robot that changes shape to move from a flat structure to a quadruped able to move, all without any external intervention.

The transformation takes four minutes and then the robot can move at a speed of about two inches per second. The scientific paper published in the journal Science explains that the design principle of this self assembly robot based on the Japanese art of origami folding. A traditional method has already been used to manufacture a lithium ion battery foldable and deformable. The robot is designed from a composite heat-sensitive surface of which is carved with cuts and grooves to create hinges. The resistors will be heated so that the deformable regions bend and cool and form the three-dimensional structure. Small engine then allow the robot to move.

These triplets pandas are already doomed to fame

The three little of Juxiao just after birth.  These are very rare captive and breeding of this species is a difficult art.  © Chimelong

The three little giant pandas, born July 29, 2014 and photographed in early August in their incubator.  They have since returned to their mother.  © Chimelong


These triplets pandas are already doomed to fame

Births captive giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) are rare and these animals, bears cousins, are rather delicate creatures. As everyone knows, they feed exclusively on bamboo, but their ancestors carnivores bequeathed their digestive system that digests bad enough this plant. http://enjoycoloring.com/abstract/ In the wild, the species is listed as threatened on the IUCN Red List . His presence is known only in a few upland forests in China.

Animal Park Chimelong promises to give regular updates on the Internet of the state of health of the mother and her cubs. Moreover, a campaign was launched paris to predict the sex of these little pandas . If they survive, their fame is assured ...

Exceptional triplets born pandas in China

Exceptional triplets born pandas in China


In the zoo Chimelong, China, a female giant panda gave birth to four small, three triplets, still alive. For this animal emblem of China, the event is exceptional and photographs of babies go around the world.

Calving took place July 29 in the zoo Chimelong in Canton, China. Juxiao ("smile chrysanthemum"), a female born in captivity at the Chinese Center for Protection and Research giant panda , gave birth to four babies, three triplets. http://enjoycoloring.com/tag/sports/ An exceptional case according to Chinese experts, for whom the event serves as a miracle. "These are the only triplets born in captivity alive today," they said in a statement Chimelong Park .

The three little pandas were first placed in an incubator because "their mother, tired, could not take care of them" . This is where they have been photographed. Since then, the cubs were returned to Juxiao, who has recovered from the birth and can now breastfeed. Their close monitoring remains constant, because the survival of pandas in captivity, especially triplets, remains woefully low.

The electricity sector satellites in limbo

The electricity sector satellites in limbo


The power satellites are presented as a solution for the future, because they are identical payload lighter than chemical propulsion. In fact, they carry much less fuel which limits their mass. In other words, a communication satellite 5 or 6 or 3 passes tons 4 tons with this technology! However, this is not as easy as it has the air ...

What must be understood is that the weight saving offers two choices for operators: either they use it to lower the cost of launch (a pitcher lowest), or they take the opportunity to increase the payload.

So until the announcement of the arrival on the market of ITS-12, it was thought that they would prefer that affect weight gain to lower launch costs and therefore guide the market power to satellites a unique range of models from March to April tonnes. http://enjoycoloring.com/tag/halloween/ A market segment that strongly dessert Arianespace and its dual launch strategy which favors the Falcon 9 launch vehicle to offers of abnormally low prices.

He had not reckoned on the 5.3 tons of ITS-12 throwing a real bombshell.  SES took everyone off balance and offers, in fact, one of the world's most powerful satellites with energy 19 kW. If a chemical propulsion craft would pick the same payload, he was so big and heavy that no rocket in use today would be able to run it!

Going back to ITS-12 and 5.3 tonnes, only Proton and Arianespace are capable of launching such high loads transfer orbit geostationary. The current version of the Falcon 9 capped at 4.8 tonnes. All is not lost however, for the young American society that promises the coming years, a pitcher ( Falcon Heavy ) 20 tons of performance to geostationary transfer orbit.

Finally, note that power satellites do not have that benefit. More expensive to build than chemical propulsion, they have the main drawback within several months to reach the orbit. For example, according to the launcher to be used (Ariane 5 or Proton), ITS-12 will between three and six months to win the geostationary orbit.

Thrusters grid versus Hall effect thrusters

Thrusters grid versus Hall effect thrusters


SES-12 as Eutelsat 172B will be built around the Eurostar E3000 platform Airbus Space, in its latest evolution EOR ( Electric Orbit Raising ). It uses only electric propulsion to transfer the satellite to the geostationary orbit and for all his maneuvers orbitals .

For motorized, Space Airbus has chosen the plasma propulsion technology only able to push a satellite the size and mass of ITS-12 effectively. Designated Hall effect , it is to create a magnetic field to trap electrons and allow the formation of a region of high electric field . Thrust is then ensured by extracting and accelerating ions from the positive plasma high density. http://enjoycoloring.com/tag/funny/ Airbus is the first company in the world to do so.

In a launch mass of 3.5 tons and a capacity of 13 kW Eutelsat 172B will be launched by Ariane 5 low (a satellite will be above it).  There will four months to reach its geostationary position.  © Airbus Space
In a launch mass of 3.5 tons and a capacity of 13 kW Eutelsat 172B will be launched by Ariane 5 low (a satellite will be above it). There will four months to reach its geostationary position. © Airbus Space

This choice differs from Boeing uses propellants gate, also called ion engines (which eject electrons). If successful for station keeping, this type of propulsion induced pushed too just for ramming satellite SES-size equivalent to 12. It is suitable only for smaller.

Contracts for the sale of electric space satellites to Airbus

Contracts for the sale of electric space satellites to Airbus


Ariane 6 configuration will depend on the future of the satellite market and competition. The announcement of the contract for the construction of ITS-12 Airbus Space reinforces the uncertainties around power satellites.

Airbus Space recently won contracts for the construction of electric satellites Eutelsat and SES 172B-12 to be launched in 2017 Eutelsat 172B will be the first European satellite to reach its orbit using electric propulsion. As for SES-12, it will be the most powerful and most flexible in the SES fleet.

If the European company was selected by two of the largest operators in the world is that it is simply the leading European, even global, in this niche of all electric. http://enjoycoloring.com/tag/nick-jr/ Lockheed Martin and Boeing have each sold two power satellites are indeed back on the market. The latter, however, seemed to have taken the lead after the sale of two small all-electric models (propulsion and station-keeping) specifically sized to be launched by a SpaceX Falcon 9, relied heavily on this contract. Yet since their sale to the Mexican operator Satmex and Asian ABS , the Seattle firm has won more contracts even if a third order should be announced.